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Insect Website Title

Pest Remedies-M:


Mite, Tomato Russet (Aculops lycopersici)

Order: Acarina; Family: Tetranychidae

Description:

Adult 1/50 inch (1/2 mm) long, yellow, green, white, or red wedge shaped, often with pair of spots on body, with 4 pairs of legs. Nymph, two stages similar in appearance to adult but smaller. Egg, round, clear, almost same width as adult.

Range: ?

Life Cycle: New generation in a week in summer, 2 weeks in winter.

Hosts/Damage:

Most plants. Suck plant juices. Tomato leaves and stems first appear greasy or light-colored stipling, then turn bronze, sometimes with necrotic blotchs and may desiccate in hot, dry weather. Lower leaves are first affected. Create webbing.

Controls:

Cultural - Adequate watering of plants.

Mechanical - Water spray to wash off. Vacuum.

Biological - Predatory mites, green lacewings.

Chemical -  Soap or oil sprays. Sulfur spray. Other sprays are not recommended although you may find various other sprays are available at your nursery or hardware store.Follow label instructions carefully to avoid injury to your plant, yourself, your pets or the environment.


Mosquito, Encephalitis (?)

Order: Diptera; Family: Culicidae

Description: Adult is (? inches) long.

Range: Throughout U.S.A. Storm drains, irrigation ditches and ponds.

Life Cycle: ?

Hosts/Damage:

Bites humans and sucks their blood. Transmits St. Louis Encephalitis virus disease which causes headaches, fever, and muscle aches. The symptoms are flu-like but rarely fatal. See your doctor.

Controls:

Cultural - Keep standing water sites to a minimum or cover with oil film to suffocate larvae. Wear long sleeves and pants. Screen windows or keep doors and windows closed.

Biological - Bt tablets are available which can be placed in standing water to kill larvae.

Chemical - Deet is an effective repellent but carefully follow label directions. Various other sprays and baits are available at your nursery or hardware store.Follow label instructions carefully to avoid injury to your plant, yourself, your pets or the environment.


Moth, American Plum Borer (Euzophera semifuneralis)

Order: Lepidoptera; Family: Pyralidae

Description: Adult is small with long, thread-like antennae. Larva is also small.

Range: Widely distributed.

Life Cycle:

Hosts/Damage:

Caterpillars (larvae) bores under the bark and sometimes kills maple, sycamore, linden, mountain-ash, plum, almond, apple, apricot, peach, pear, cherry, pecan. Also is pest of stored sweetpotatoes.

Controls:

Cultural - Keep debris cleaned up under trees. Prune out nests. Sticky bands on tree trunk.

Biological -

Chemical - Oil spray. Various other sprays and baits are available at your nursery or hardware store. Follow label instructions carefully to avoid injury to your plant, yourself, your pets or the environment.


Moth, Apple Bark Borer (Synanthedon pyri)

Order: Lepidoptera; Family: Aegeriidae

Description: Adult, clearwing moth.

Range: From Maine to Texas.

Life Cycle:

Hosts/Damage:

Caterpillars (larvae) found in crotches and in rough bark of neglected trees of apple, pear, pecan, hawthorn, mountain-ash and shadbush.

Controls:

Cultural - Keep debris cleaned up under trees.  Sticky bands on tree trunk.

Biological -

Chemical - Oil spray. Various other sprays and baits are available at your nursery or hardware store. Follow label instructions carefully to avoid injury to your plant, yourself, your pets or the environment.


Moth, Armyworm (Pseudaletia unipunctata) ARMYWORM MOTH

Order: Lepidoptera; Family: Noctuidae ARMYWORM

Description:

Larva is (1 - 2 inches) 25 - 50 mm long. Hairless. Colors vary from green to black with stripe down each side, purplish to black with 2 yellow stripes down the back or brown to black with white 'Y' on a black head. Adult, brown gray with small white dot on center of each forewing, wingspan about 1-1/2 inches (37 mm), night flyers, attracted to lights and decaying fruit. Eggs,  green white and layed in long rows under leaf.

Range: Throughout U.S.A.

Life Cycle:

Moths lay eggs on leaves. After hatching the worms feed for several weeks before pupating in soil. There are 1 - 6 generations each year depending on the weather.

Hosts/Damage: Chews leafy vegetables. Usually destroys seedlings. Kills patches of lawns.

Controls:

Cultural - Handpicking, weeding and tilling soil.

Biological - Toads, trichogramma wasp, tachinid flies, Bt, Parasitic nematodes attack larvae and pupae (e.g. Biosafe) and spined soldier bugs.

Chemical - Neem. Various other sprays and baits are available at your nursery or hardware store.Follow label instructions carefully to avoid injury to your plant, yourself, your pets or the environment.


Moth, Ash Borer (Podosesia syringae)

Order: Lepidoptera; Family: Aegeriidae

Description:

Adult is a clearwing moth. Front wings are opaque black brown with violet reflection and red crossbar. Hind wings are transparent with narrow black border. Larva is white, 37 mm (1-1/2") long, with brown head.

Range: Widely distributed but most serious in prairie states.

Life Cycle:

Hosts/Damage:

Caterpillars (larvae) bores into tree just below ground level which can result in tree breaking in wind. Attacks ash and mountain-ash.

Controls:

Cultural - Keep debris cleaned up under trees. Prune out nests. Sticky bands on tree trunk.

Biological -

Chemical - Oil spray. Various other sprays and baits are available at your nursery or hardware store. Follow label instructions carefully to avoid injury to your plant, yourself, your pets or the environment.


Moth, Bagworm (Apterona hellix) see snailcase bagworm moth.htm for more information.

Bagworm Moth

Order: Lepidoptera; Family: Psychidae

Description:

Larva: A caterpillar which produces a bag-like house which it drags along as it feeds. The bags are about (2 inches) 50 mm long and are often found dangling from a twig or branch. Adult: Black furry body on male moth, feathered antenna, wingspan about 25 mm (1"). Female, maggot-like, yellow found in bag.

Range:

Life Cycle:

During the winter, the bags contain as many as 1000 eggs. In the Spring, the eggs hatch and the caterpillars disperse to feed. After a time a bag is formed from debris in which the caterpillar pupates. The moth emerges in a few days. The females are wingless and mouthless and remain in the bag but the males are small black moths which find the females for fertilization. There is one generation a year.

Hosts/Damage:

All trees. Prefer junipers and arborvitae. Damage tends to start at the top of the tree and proceed down. In severe cases the whole tree is defoliated and may die. Baby's breath especially in nurseries.

Controls:

Cultural - Hand pick bags and destroy.

Biological - Use Bt when in the feeding larvae stage. Pheromone traps.

Chemical - Various other sprays and baits are available at your nursery or hardware store. Follow label instructions carefully to avoid injury to your plant, yourself, your pets or the environment.


Moth, Banded Woollybear (Isia isabella)

Order: Lepidoptera; Family: Arctiidae

Description:

Larva is (1-1/4 inches) 31 mm long. Densely hairy. Color , black on both ends and with red brown band around the center. Rolls into ball when disturbed. Adult , a tiger moth, yellow, wingspan  about 1-1/2 to 2  inches (37 - 50 mm), dusky spots on wings and black spots on abdomen.

Range: Throughout U.S.A.

Life Cycle:

Especially numerous during July and August. They overwinter as caterpillars or hairy cocoons. Female moth lays clusters of eggs on host plant leaves. Eggs hatch in about 1 week. Caterpillar grows rapidly and reaches full size in about 4 weeks. There is usually only one generation each year.

Hosts/Damage:

Feeds on leaves of many garden plants but usually not a serious problem because it primarily feeds on weeds.

Controls:

Cultural - Handpicking, weeding and tilling soil.

Biological - Trichogramma wasp, Bt, Parasitic nematodes attack larvae and pupae (e.g. Biosafe) and spined soldier bugs.

Chemical - Neem. Various other sprays and baits are available at your nursery or hardware store. Follow label instructions carefully to avoid injury to your plant, yourself, your pets or the environment.


Moth, Beet Armyworm (Spodoptera exigua)

Order: Lepidoptera; Family: Noctuidae

Description:

Larva is (1 - 1-1/4 inches) 25 - 31 mm long. Hairless. Color generally green mottled with white spots, often with small black spot above 2nd pair of true legs. Pupa, brown, found in soil, adult emerges in about 1 week. Egg, found in masses of 50 - 75 covered with felt-like mass of scales from mother's body, usually found under leaves of host, hatch in 3 days. Adult , front wing light brown gray with indistinct lines spanning about 1 inch (25 mm) ,hind wing white, active at night, can be monitored with pheromone traps.

Range: Throughout U.S.A.

Life Cycle:

Moths lay eggs on leaves. After hatching the worms feed for several weeks before pupating in soil. There are 1 - 6 generations each year depending on the weather.

Hosts/Damage:

Eat corn, cotton, peas, peppers, spinach, tomatoes, beets, asparagus fern, carnation, geranium, gladiolus and primrose. Usually destroys seedlings.

Controls:

Cultural - Handpicking, weeding and tilling soil.

Biological - Trichogramma wasp, Bt, Parasitic nematodes attack larvae and pupae (e.g. Biosafe) and spined soldier bugs.

Chemical - Neem. Various other sprays and baits are available at your nursery or hardware store. Follow label instructions carefully to avoid injury to your plant, yourself, your pets or the environment.


Moth, Cabbage Looper (Trichoplusia ni)

Order: Lepidoptera; Family: Geometridae

Description:

Larva, tapering body to head, green with a thin white line above the spiracles and 2 others down the back, 3 prolegs, moves in looping fashion. Adult, gray brown, wingspan 1-1/4 inch (31 mm), forewings marked with a figure 8 shape, silver white spot, active at night. Egg, green white, ridged but flattened laterally, found singly on leaves of upper canopy.

Life Cycle:

Female lays many small, round, green white eggs, singly on upper surface of host plant leaf. Larvae hatch out in about 2 - 3 days, 3 generations per year. Larvae feeds for 2 - 3 weeks, then spins cocoon.

Hosts/Damage:

Attacks cabbage family and beet, celery, parsley, pea, potato, spinach, tomato, carnation, chrysanthemum, geranium and others. Young larvae feed on lower leaf surface but older ones consume foliage but rarely fruit.

Control:

Cultural: Cultivate well in fall and remove or bury plant debris.

Mechanical: Vegetables can be screened from female moth. Handpick larva and mash.

Biological: Bt

Chemical: Various other sprays and baits are available at your nursery or hardware store. Follow label instructions carefully to avoid injury to your plant, yourself, your pets or the environment.


Moth, Codling (Cydia pomonella)

Order: Lepidoptera; Family: Tortricidae

Description: Larva: Caterpillar is about (1 inch) 25 mm long with a white or pinkish body and a dark head. Adult: Gray, brown with irregular gold, brown lines on forewings and paler, fringed hindwings, wingspread to 19 mm (3/4"). Eggs: Flat, white, singly layed on upper surface of leaves, twigs and fruit spurs.

Life Cycle:

Coppery banded moths lay eggs in Spring when host trees are in bloom. After hatching, the caterpillar bores into the fruit or nut and eventually come out to drop to the ground to pupate in debris. There are 2 to 4 generations per year.

Hosts/Damage:

Fruit and nut trees. Caterpillars prefer apple, pear and walnut. They tunnel into fruit which often causes it to drop prematurely.

Controls:

Cultural - Keep fallen fruit destroyed.

Biological - Pheromone traps for adults. Trichogramma wasps for eggs. Bt is effective before the caterpillar enters the fruit or nut.

Chemical - Oil spray. Various other sprays and baits are available at your nursery or hardware store. Follow label instructions carefully to avoid injury to your plant, yourself, your pets or the environment.


Moth, Corn Earworm (Tomato fruitworm or bollworm)(Heliothis zea)

Order: Lepidoptera; Family: Noctuidaetomatofruitwrmegg.gif (43351 bytes) tomatofruitwrmcaterpillar.gif (33186 bytes) tomatofruitwrmmoth.gif (53681 bytes)

Description:

Larvae: Caterpillars, young are tiny and white with black heads. Older larva grow to (1-1/2 inch) 37 mm and are green to nearly black with lengthwise stripes and stubby spines along their back. Eggs, waxy white, dome shaped and ribbed with a flat base, found under leaf or flower petals, hatch in 2 - 3 days, laid singly. Adults, male moth forewing is cream with orange or olive shade, females are light yellow brown with indistinct vertical lines, active at night.

Life Cycle:

In the Spring, moths lay domed, ridged whitish eggs on corn silks or leaf undersides. Caterpillars eat for several weeks before pupating in the soil. There are up to 7 generations per year.

Hosts/Damage:

Corn, tomatoes and other vegetables. Caterpillars eat tip kernels of ripening corn and may tunnel into tomatoes or eat foliage.

Controls:

Cultural - Time planting to avoid large infestation. Plant resistant varieties. Hand pick. Till soil to kill pupae.

Biological - Pheromone traps for adults. Trichogramma wasps for eggs. Bt for larva. Parasitic nematodes. Spined soldier bugs.

Chemical - Mineral oil on corn silks. Various other sprays and baits are available at your nursery or hardware store. Follow label instructions carefully to avoid injury to your plant, yourself, your pets or the environment.


Moth, Diamondback (Plutella xylostella)

Order: Lepidoptera; Family: Plutellidae

Description:

Larva is pale green with black head and tapered body (1/5 inch) 5 mm long which often hangs from silk thread. Adult is gray moth with folded yellow diamond-shaped areas on the wings (3/4 inch) 19 mm wing span. Eggs are yellow.

Life Cycle: Eggs laid singly on foliage. 2 to 6 generations per year. Moths hibernate in cabbage family debris.

Hosts/Damage:

Broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, kohlrabi. Larvae mine leaves and externally. Damage usually minor.

Controls:

Cultural - Clean up debris. Row covers.

Biological - Use Bt when larvae are feeding.

Chemical - Various other sprays and baits are available at your nursery or hardware store. Follow label instructions carefully to avoid injury to your plant, yourself, your pets or the environment.


Moth, Eastern Tent (Malacosoma americanum)

Order: Lepidoptera; Family: Lasiocampidae

Description:

Larvae, 2 to 2-1/2 inches (50 mm to 67 mm), black body with white stripe down back and with brown and yellow lines and a row of oval blue spots on sides. Spin conspicuous white webs (tents) in the limb forks of deciduous plants including trees. Eggs , in masses with brown varnished appearance which contain 150 -300 eggs. Adult, hairy, light red brown with 2 diagonal markings on the forewings, wingspan about 1 inch (25 mm), attracted to light.

Life Cycle:

Caterpillars emerge from overwintering eggs at about time host plant starts leafing out. They feed for 4 - 6 weeks and then descend to ground. Once they find a protected spot, they spin yellow white cocoons attached to trees, buildings, furniture, etc. Adult moths emerge about 3 weeks later and live only a few days during which they mate and lay eggs usually around twigs of host plants.

Hosts/Damage:

Oak, almond, apple, apricot, ash, toyon, California coffeeberry, ceanothus, cherry, cottonwood, currant, hazel, madrona, plum, prune, redbud, rose, willow, and other fruit and forest trees.

Controls:

Cultural - Cut out caterpillar infestation and destroy.

Biological - Bt, time spray during latter part of day and when caterpillars are young. Alternatively, encase caterpillars in a fine wire mesh and allow beneficials to find and kill them.

Chemical - Sulfur powder. Follow label instructions carefully to avoid injury to your plant, yourself, your pets or the environment.


Moth, European Corn Borer (Ostrinia nubilalis)

Order: Lepidoptera; Family: Pyralidae

Description:

Larva: About (1 inch) 25 mm long greyish pink caterpillar has dark head and 2 rows of dark spots along body. Adult: Female is yellow, brown with wavy dark bands, the male is darker, wingspan about 25 mm (1"), fly mostly at night. Eggs: layed in flat masses of 400, on underside of corn leaves.

Life Cycle:

Moth lays egg mass under corn leaves. When hatched, the larva feed briefly on leaves and tassels and then tunnel into stalks and feed for several weeks. The larva may pupate and stay in stalk over the winter. There are 1 - 3 generations per year.

Hosts/Damage:

Mostly corn but may attack other vegetables and flowers. Leaves sustain many small shot holes. Corn stalks have small holes edged with sawdust. Tassels are broken and corn ears may have tunnels.

Controls:

Cultural - Plant resistant varieties. Weed. Handpick. Remove plant debris.

Biological - Pheromone traps for adults. Trichogramma wasps parasitize eggs. Bt in leaf whorls of corn to kill larva.

Chemical - Ryania or rotenone. Various other sprays and baits are available at your nursery or hardware store. Follow label instructions carefully to avoid injury to your plant, yourself, your pets or the environment.


Moth, Fall Webworm (Hyphantria cunea)

Order: Lepidoptera; Family: Arctiidae

Description:

Adult is fuzzy,white with brown spots; (2 inch) 50 mm wingspan. Larva is pale green or yellow; covered with long silky hairs attached to small humps and black stripe down its back. Eggs are yellow, laid in masses under leaves.

Range:

Life Cycle: 1 to 3 generations per year. Pupa overwinters in coccoons attached to tree bark or debris.

Hosts/Damage:

Caterpillars (larvae) make silken nest on the end of branchs and feed on leaves of apple, cherry, peach, pecan and walnut trees. Also roses, ornamental shrubs and shade trees.

Controls:

Cultural - Keep debris cleaned up under trees. Handpick larva. Prune out nests. Sticky bands on tree trunk.

Biological - Bt against larvae when they are feeding. Trichogramma wasps attack eggs. Spined soldier bugs attack larvae.

Chemical - Oil spray. Various other sprays and baits are available at your nursery or hardware store. Follow label instructions carefully to avoid injury to your plant, yourself, your pets or the environment.


Moth, Gypsy (Lymantria dispar)

Order: Lepidoptera; Family: Lymantriidae

Description:

Larvae are (about 2 inch) 50 mm long, gray with long brown hair and brown or red spots and white stripes down the back. Adult moth has (1.5 - 2 inch) 37 to 50 mm wingspan; male is grayish and the female is fuzzy white. Eggs are light brown to yellowish and laid in large masses.

Life Cycle: One generation per year. Only eggs overwinter.

Hosts/Damage: Apple and cherry leaves are eaten at night by larvae .

Controls:

Cultural - Prune. Handpick larvae especially in evening.

 Biological - Apply Bt when larvae are feeding. Trichogramma wasps eat eggs.

Chemical - Various other sprays and baits are available at your nursery or hardware store. Follow label instructions carefully to avoid injury to your plant, yourself, your pets or the environment.


Moth, Lilac Leaf Miner (Caloptilia syringella)

Order: Lepidoptera; Family: Gracillariidae

Description: Adult moth has brown forewings mottled with silver and two silvery bands across it's middle. Larva: Pale yellow, translucent, 9 mm (1/3").

Life Cycle:

Larvae make coccoons in soil debris where it overwinters. 2 or 3 generations occur per year, the last one in September. The adult (moths) usually emerge in May.

Hosts/Damage:

Larvae burrow between upper and lower leaf surfaces and mine tissues. When full grown they spin webs around the leaves and feed until leaf is skeletonized.

Controls:

Cultural - Remove damaged leaves and burn while in the larvae stage.

Biological - Bt while in the feeding larvae stage after emerging from leaf.

Chemical - Soap spray while still in the larvae stage. Various other sprays and baits are available at your nursery or hardware store. Follow label instructions carefully to avoid injury to your plant, yourself, your pets or the environment.


Moth, Obliquebanded Leafroller (Choristoneura rosaceana)

Order: Lepidoptera; Family: Tortricidae

Description:

Adult is a greyish brown moth with about (2/3 inch) 18 mm wingspan. Larvae is pale green with a black head and between (2/3 - 1 inch) 18 and 25 mm long. Eggs are green.

Life Cycle:

One generation per year. Adult lays eggs in overlapping mass under host leaves. Larvae pupates in coccoon.

Hosts/Damage:

Apple, apricot, bean, blackberry, celery, cherry, currant, peach, pear, raspberry, strawberry leaves are mined by larvae in early Spring, later forming webs and rolling leaves as they feed.

Controls:

Cultural - Remove and destroy infested leaves. Handpick larvae. Control the larvae before it takes refuge in the rolled leaves.

Biological - Spray Bt when larvae are feeding in open. Trichogramma wasps to parasitize eggs. Spined soldier bugs eat larvae.

Chemical - Oil, neem, pyrethrum and rotenone sprays. Various other sprays and baits are available at your nursery or hardware store. Follow label instructions carefully to avoid injury to your plant, yourself, your pets or the environment.


Moth, Potato Tuberworm (Phthorimaea operculella)

Order: Lepidoptera; Family: Gelechiidae

Description:

Adult is small, narrow winged brown moth. Larva is pinkish white with a brown head and about (1/2 inch) 12 mm long.

Life Cycle:

Adults crawl through cracks in the soil to lay eggs on growing host tubers and lay eggs on leaf underside. After feeding the larvae pupate in soil debris. There are up to 6 generations per year.

Hosts/Damage: Tunneling by larvae spoils potato tubers. Tomatoes, eggplant and peppers are also attacked.

Controls:

Cultural - Rotate crops. Mulch plants. Clean up debris. Destroy infested plants and tubers.

Biological - ?

Chemical - Various other sprays and baits are available at your nursery or hardware store. Follow label instructions carefully to avoid injury to your plant, yourself, your pets or the environment.


Moth, Silverspotted Tiger (Lophocampa argentata)

Order: Lepidoptera; Family: Arctiidae

Description:

Adult, wingspread about 2 inches (50 mm), forewings are red brown with many silver spots, hindwings are white to tan. Larvae, about 1-1/2 inches (38 mm), covered with dense black, red brown and yellow hairs, some people get a rash. Eggs, are oval and pea green. Pupae, dirty brown coccoon with shiny red brown pupa inside.

Life Cycle:

The larva is the damaging stage. In mid-June they leave the trees to seek sheltered pupation sites, such as among needles, bark and under house eaves. Dirty brown coccoons are constructed from silk and body hairs; inside is a shiny, red brown pupa. Eggs are laid in clusters on needles and twigs of host in mid to late summer. The eggs hatch in 2 weeks. The small, furry, rust brown or blackish larva (caterpillars) feed on the needles in dense groups. They feed until cold weather starts. Young larva hibernated during the winter in dense webs which they spin. They resume feeding in early Spring. When they are 2/3 grown they disperse and feed singly or in small groups.

Hosts/Damage:

Ornamental conifers; it's main host is Douglas fir but it also feeds on spruce, pine and others. It makes a tent-like nest. Feeding is restricted to the needles at the end of lateral branches. Whole branches are oftern stripped clean but defoliation is usually on one or two limbs of the host. Since buds are not harmed, the host recovers by early Summer.

Controls:

Cultural - Remove infested limb, tent and caterpillars.

Biological - Bt. Tachinid flies.

Chemical - Follow label instructions carefully to avoid injury to your plant, yourself, your pets or the environment.


Moth, Southern Armyworm (Spodoptera eridania)

Order: Lepidoptera; Family: Noctuidae

Description:

Larva is ( 2 inches) 50 mm long. Hairless. Dark, head yellow brown, yellow line along side interrupted by a large dark spot on 1st abdominal segment, full-grown has 2 rows of dark triangles on underside surface, lasts 2 - 3 weeks. Eggs, mass in 100 - 200 covered with scales, found on underside of leaves, hatch in 3 days. Adult, front wing streaked with creamy gray, light brown and black spanning about 1-1/2 inches (37 mm), hind wings white with some dark on margins. Pupa, brown, found in soil, adult emerges in 7 days.

Range: Throughout U.S.A.

Life Cycle:

Moths lay eggs on leaves. After hatching the worms feed for several weeks before pupating in soil. There are 1 - 6 generations each year depending on the weather.

Hosts/Damage:

Young larvae chew underside of leafy vegetables but older larvae eat whole leaf and eat large wholes in fruit. Usually destroys seedlings. Kills patches of lawns.

Controls:

Cultural - Handpicking, weeding and tilling soil.

Biological - Trichogramma wasp, Bt, Parasitic nematodes attack larvae and pupae (e.g. Biosafe) and spined soldier bugs.

Chemical - Neem. Various other sprays and baits are available at your nursery or hardware store.Follow label instructions carefully to avoid injury to your plant, yourself, your pets or the environment.


Moth, Soybean Looper (Pseudoplusia includens)

Order: Lepidoptera; Family: Geometridae

Description:

Larva, tapering body to head, green with a thin white line above the spiracles and 2 others down the back, 3 prolegs.. Adult, gray brown, wingspan 1-1/4 inch (31 mm), forewings marked with a figure 8 shape, silver white spot, active at night. Egg, green white, ridged but flattened laterally, found singly on leaves of upper canopy.

Life Cycle:

Female lays many small, round, green white eggs, singly on upper surface of host plant leaf. Larvae hatch out in about 2 - 3 days, 3 generations per year. Larvae feeds for 2 - 3 weeks, then spins cocoon.

Hosts/Damage:

Attacks cabbage family and beet, celery, parsley, pea, potato, spinach, tomato, carnation, chrysanthemum, geranium and others. Young larvae feed on lower leaf surface but older ones consume foliage but rarely fruit.

Control:

Cultural: Vegetables can be screened from female moth.

Biological: Bt

Chemical: Various other sprays and baits are available at your nursery or hardware store. Follow label instructions carefully to avoid injury to your plant, yourself, your pets or the environment.


Moth, Spotted Tussock (Lophocampa maculata)

Order: Lepidoptera; Family: Arctiidae

Description:

Adult: Dark yellow forewings marked by bands and spots, plain, nearly transparent hindwings. Wingspan about 50 mm (2"). Larvae: About 31 mm (1-1/4") long with tufts of yellow hairs in the middle of the body, black hairs at both ends, a line of black spots along the back and a  few long whitish pencils of hair.

Life Cycle: zzz

Hosts/Damage: Feeds on alder, apple, birch, boxelder, wild cherry, maple, oak and willow. Not a serious defoliator.

Controls:

Cultural - zzz

Biological - zzz

Chemical -  Follow label instructions carefully to avoid injury to your plant, yourself, your pets or the environment.


Moth, Squash Vine Borer (Melitta cucurbitae)

Order: Lepidoptera; Family: Sesiidae

Description:

Adults are red and black moths. Larvae (borer) are about (1 inch) 25 mm long, white accordion body and brown head. Eggs are mahogany, shiny brown.

Life Cycle:

When cucumber related plants flower, the moth lays single eggs usually on host stems near plant base. Larvae hatch in 1 - 2 weeks and bore into stems and feed for about a month before returning to soil to pupate. They overwinter as larvae or pupae. Up to 2 generations per year.

Hosts/Damage:

Larvae bore into host stems which cuts off the plant nutrients which causes plant to decline and eventually die. They attack cucumbers, squash and melons.

Controls:

Cultural - Plant resistant varieties. Plant early or late to avoid peak pest population. Use row covers to exclude adult (moth) so it can't lay eggs on your plant. Put foil collars around lower plant stem to keep larvae from boring into it. Till soil to expose eggs and pupae to enemies.

 Biological - Trichogramma wasps parasitize eggs. Parasitic nematodes attack larvae.

Chemical - Rotenone spray before larvae bores into host stem. Various other sprays and baits are available at your nursery or hardware store. Follow label instructions carefully to avoid injury to your plant, yourself, your pets or the environment.


Moth, Tomato Hornworm(Manduca quinquemaculata)

Order: Lepidoptera; Family: Sphingidaetomatohornwrm.gif (23506 bytes)

Description:

Larvae: Caterpillars, grow to (3 - 4 inch) 75 - 100 mm with 8 white V or L shaped markings along each side, horn at end of body. Eggs, large green yellow, found singly on and under leaf or flower petals, hatch in 1 week. Adults, light gray, spindle-shaped moth with narrow wings, abdomen with 5 pairs of quadrangular orange yellow spots, active at dusk, 4 - 5 inch (100 - 125 mm) wingspan. Pupa, brown, 2 inches (50 mm) long, found in soil.

Life Cycle:

In the Spring, moths lay eggs on leaf. Caterpillars eat for 3 - 4 weeks before pupating in the soil, adults emerge in 3 weeks.

Hosts/Damage:

Tomatoes and other vegetables. Caterpillars eat foliage. Often parasitized.

Controls:

Cultural - Time planting to avoid large infestation. Plant resistant varieties. Hand pick. Till soil to kill pupae.

Biological - Pheromone traps for adults. Trichogramma wasps for eggs. Bt for larva. Parasitic nematodes. Spined soldier bugs.

Chemical - Various other sprays and baits are available at your nursery or hardware store. Follow label instructions carefully to avoid injury to your plant, yourself, your pets or the environment.


Moth, Tomato Pinworm(Keiferia lycopersicella)

Order: Lepidoptera; Family: ?tomatopinwrmegg.gif (32173 bytes) tomatopinwrmcatepillar.jpg (55686 bytes) tomatopinwrm.gif (37856 bytes)

Description:

Larva, grow to (3/8 inch) 10 mm which is purple gray, 1 - 3 weeks. Eggs, small pale yellow to orange, not ridged, found singly or grouped in 2 - 3's usually on underside of  leaf, hatch in 1 week. Adults, small gray, active at dusk, 3/8 - 1/2 inch (10 - 13 mm) wingspan. Pupa, formed in loose pupal shell near soil surface, adult emerges in 2 - 5 weeks.

Life Cycle:

In the Spring, moths lay eggs on leaf. Caterpillars eat for 1 - 3 weeks before pupating in the soil, adults emerge in 2 - 5 weeks.

Hosts/Damage:

Blotch mining and folding of leaves, small holes (pin sized) in fruit, mature larvae may bore into the fruit calyx.

Controls:

Cultural - Time planting to avoid large infestation. Plant resistant varieties. Hand pick. Till soil to kill pupae.

Biological - Pheromone traps for adults. Trichogramma wasps for eggs. Bt for larva. Parasitic nematodes. Spined soldier bugs.

Chemical - Various other sprays and baits are available at your nursery or hardware store. Follow label instructions carefully to avoid injury to your plant, yourself, your pets or the environment.


Moth, Unicorn (Schizura unicornis)

Order: Lepidoptera; Family: zzz

Description:

Adult, brown gray, wingspan 1-1/3 inch (33 mm). Larva: Caterpillar, variegated brown, orange and green with a prominent projection on 1st abdominal segment, 1-1/3 inch (33 mm).

Life Cycle:

Newly hatched caterpillars are gregarious, skeletonizing leaf undersurface, older ones eat all but the leaf midrib. Full grown caterpillars overwinter in papery cocoons in ground litter.

Hosts/Damage: Feed on apple, wild cherry, willow, pin-oaks and other deciduous trees.

Controls:

Cultural - Handpick

Biological - Bt

Chemical - Follow label instructions carefully to avoid injury to your plant, yourself, your pets or the environment.


Moth, Western Tent (Malacosoma californicum)

Order: Lepidoptera; Family: Lasiocampidae

Description:

Larvae, red brown or tawny hairs on black body with blue and orange lines on sides or tawny hairs on a black body with blue and orange spots, may be pale underneath. Spin conspicuous white webs (tents) in the limb forks of deciduous plants including trees.Eggs , in masses with brown varnished appearance which contain 150 -300 eggs. Adult, hairy, yellow to red brown with 2 diagonal markings on the forewings, wingspan about 1 inch (25 mm), attracted to light.

Life Cycle:

Caterpillars emerge from overwintering eggs at about time host plant starts leafing out. They feed until erly summer and then descend to ground. Once they find a protected spot, they spin yellow white cocoons attached to trees, buildings, furniture, etc. Adult moths emerge about 3 weeks later and live only a few days during which they mate and lay eggs usually around twigs of host plants.

Hosts/Damage:

Oak, almond, apple, apricot, ash, toyon, California coffeeberry, ceanothus, cherry, cottonwood, currant, hazel, madrona, plum, prune, redbud, rose, willow, and other fruit and forest trees.

Controls:

Cultural - Cut out caterpillar infestation and destroy.

Biological - Bt, time spray during latter part of day and when caterpillars are young.

Chemical - zzz Follow label instructions carefully to avoid injury to your plant, yourself, your pets or the environment.


Moth, Yellowstriped Armyworm (Spodoptera ornithogalli)

Order: Lepidoptera; Family: Noctuidae yellowstripedarmywrm.gif (19643 bytes)

Description:

Larva hairless. Colors similar to southern armyworm except that the head is dark and dark lateral marks on each segment behind true legs are bisected by a thin, white line. Adult and Eggs, see Southern Armyworm Moth which is similar.

Range: Southeastern U.S.A.

Life Cycle:

Moths lay eggs on leaves. After hatching the worms feed for several weeks before pupating in soil. There are 1 - 6 generations each year depending on the weather.

Hosts/Damage: Chews leafy vegetables. Usually destroys seedlings.

Controls:

Cultural - Handpicking, weeding and tilling soil.

Biological - Trichogramma wasp, Bt, Parasitic nematodes attack larvae and pupae (e.g. Biosafe) and spined soldier bugs.

Chemical - Neem. Various other sprays and baits are available at your nursery or hardware store.Follow label instructions carefully to avoid injury to your plant, yourself, your pets or the environment.


Moth, Yellow Woollybear (Spilosoma virginica)

Order: Lepidoptera; Family: Arctiidae

Description:

Larvae: Caterpillars, very hairy, yellow or straw colored with black lines. Adults, Virginia tiger moth, white wings with black spots and a yellow brown, black spotted abdomen.

Life Cycle: 2 generations each year. Pupae overwinter in hairy cocoons.

Hosts/Damage: They are general feeders and will eat many garden plants.Not usually a serious pest.

Controls:

Cultural - Handpick

Biological - Bt

Chemical - Follow label instructions carefully to avoid injury to your plant, yourself, your pets or the environment.


Moth, Zebra (Melanchra picta)

Order: Lepidoptera; Family: zzz

Description: zzz

Life Cycle: zzz

Hosts/Damage: zzz

Controls:

Cultural - zzz

Biological - Bt

Chemical - zzz Follow label instructions carefully to avoid injury to your plant, yourself, your pets or the environment.


 Last edited: 11/23/98 11:05 PM

 

Disclaimer:

The help provided by the author of this site is the best scientific based information, about which he is aware, but gardening is not an exact science due to the many unpredictable elements involved so the results can not be guaranteed. E-mail feedback is therefor invited to keep the author aware of successes and failures. Also let me know if you are the author of anything that appears to be illegally incorporated in violation of your copyrights.