Make your own free website on Tripod.com

ag00007_.gif (7458 bytes)

 

Insect Website Title

Pest Remedies-A:


Ant

Ants

Order: Hymenoptera; Family: Formicidae

Description:

Generally black, red, amber or a combination. Waist is pinched, large jaws and elbowed antenna. They move rapidly and are capable of lifting large objects relative to their size. Some spray formic acid which causes a strong burning sensation which is often incorrectly described as a sting. There are a large number of species (1). See specific specie for more precise information.

Range: Throughout U.S.A.

Life Cycle:

Winged males and females hatch each year and after mating the males die and the fertilized females (queens) each establish their own nest where they start laying large numbers of eggs to form a colony. The eggs mostly hatch into workers that tend the female and care for the young, the female and defend the colony.

Hosts/Damage:

Ants are hosted in wood, foodstuffs, dead animals, etc. Certain ants (e.g. Carpenter ants) can damage wood similar to termites. Others (e.g. Moisture ants) contaminate foodstuffs in kitchens. Outside some tend aphids like cattle which encourages plant damage by aphids.

Controls:

Cultural - Sticky barriers. Keep wood dry.

Biological -

Antlion are natural enemies. Microbial pesticide avermectin prevents the queen ant from laying eggs so the colony slowly dies out.

Chemical -

Boric acid, soap sprays, pyrethrum. Various other sprays and baits are available at your nursery or hardware store. Follow label instructions carefully to avoid injury to your plant, yourself, your pets or the environment.

1. Some common species are: Acorn (Leptothorax spp.), Allegheny Mound (Formica exsectoides), Argentine (Indomyrmex humilis), Carpenter (Camponotus sp.), Crazy (Paratrechina longicornis), Fire (Solenopsis sp.), Moisture or Cornfield (Lasius sp.), Odorous House (Tapinoma sessile), Pavement (Tetramorium caespitum) and Pharoah (Monomorium pharaonis).

 

Ant, Acorn (Leptothorax spp.)

Order: Hymenoptera; Family: Formicidae

Description: Generally black or red. Waist is pinched, large jaws and elbowed antenna. They are very small; about 1/16" (2 mm).

Range: Southern Vermont and New Hampshire West through Southern Ontario to the Western limits of Eastern deciduous forests in Iowa and Kansas, South to the Gulf coast.

Life Cycle: Winged males and females hatch each year and after mating the males die and the fertilized females (queens) each establish their own nest where they start laying large numbers of eggs to form a colony. The eggs mostly hatch into workers that tend the female and care for the young, the female and defend the colony.

Hosts/Damage: Ants are hosted in oak acorns (especially Northern Red Oak) and hollow stems of plants such as milkweed.

Controls:

Cultural - Sticky barriers.

Biological - Antlion are natural enemies. Microbial pesticide avermectin prevents the queen ant from laying eggs so the colony slowly dies out.

Chemical - Boric acid, soap sprays, pyrethrum. Various other sprays and baits are available at your nursery or hardware store. Follow label instructions carefully to avoid injury to your plant, yourself, your pets or the environment.

References:

Acorn Ants, J. Copeland, Mass. Wildlife, Summer 1995, Mass. Div. of Fisheries and Wildlife.


Ant, Allegheny Mound (Formica exsectoides)

Order: Hymenoptera; Family: Formicidae

Description: Red-brown head and thorax, black-brown abdomen. Waist is pinched with one pedicel, large jaws and elbowed antenna. They feed mainly on insect honeydew.

Range: Eastern U.S.A.

Life Cycle: Winged males and females hatch each year and after mating the males die and the fertilized females (queens) each establish their own nest where they start laying large numbers of eggs to form a colony. The eggs mostly hatch into workers that tend the female and care for the young, the female and defend the colony.

Hosts/Damage: Ants produce large mounds, 2 - 3 feet high and up to 8 feet across. Small trees and shrubs are killed within 35 feet of a mound by their formic acid they inject into the plants. They damage forests.

Controls:

Cultural - Sticky barriers. Keep wood dry.

Biological - Antlion are natural enemies. Microbial pesticide avermectin prevents the queen ant from laying eggs so the colony slowly dies out.

Chemical - Boric acid, soap sprays, pyrethrum. Various other sprays and baits are available at your nursery or hardware store. Follow label instructions carefully to avoid injury to your plant, yourself, your pets or the environment.


Ant, Argentine (Iridomyrmex humilis)

Order: Hymenoptera; Family: Formicidae

Description: Brown and about 2 - 3 mm (1/8") long. Waist is pinched with one pedicel, large jaws and elbowed antenna.

Range: Throughout Southern U.S.A, from California to East coast.

Life Cycle: Winged males and females hatch each year and after mating the males die and the fertilized females (queens) each establish their own nest where they start laying large numbers of eggs to form a colony. The eggs mostly hatch into workers that tend the female and care for the young, the female and defend the colony. Yhey nest in large colonies in dark, moist places and travel in definite trails.

Hosts/Damage: They are very injurious to citrus and other fruits and to shade trees. They also attack blossoms and distribute aphids, mealybugs and scale insects.

Controls:

Cultural - Sticky barriers.

Biological - Antlion are natural enemies. Microbial pesticide avermectin prevents the queen ant from laying eggs so the colony slowly dies out.

Chemical - Boric acid, soap sprays, pyrethrum. Various other sprays and baits are available at your nursery or hardware store. Follow label instructions carefully to avoid injury to your plant, yourself, your pets or the environment.


 Ant, Carpenter (Camponotus sp.)

Carpenter Ant

Order: Hymenoptera; Family: Formicidae

Description: Generally black, sometimes with red, amber or a combination. Waist is pinched with one pedicel, large jaws in workers and elbowed antenna. They move rapidly and are capable of lifting large objects relative to their size. Length 6 - 10 mm. Photo: Courtesy of D. Buchanan of All Natural Pest Control Co., Ltd. (11/96)

Range: Throughout U.S.A.

Life Cycle: Winged males and females hatch each year starting in the Spring and after mating the males die and the fertilized females (queens) each establish their own nest where they start laying large numbers of eggs to form a colony. The eggs mostly hatch into workers that tend the female and care for the young, the female and defend the colony. The life cycle from egg to adult takes about 65 days from egg to adult, depending on the temperature.

Hosts/Damage: Ants are hosted in wood, foodstuffs, dead animals, etc. Eat dead animals, insects, etc. Burrow out wood for habitat and tend to attack wet or decaying wood. They can damage wood similar to termites. Normally nest in dead stumps and debris around wooded areas. They can bite hard!

Controls:

Cultural - Sticky barriers. Keep wood dry. Keep old, dead stumps,trees and debris at least 50 feet from buildings.

Biological - Antlion are natural enemies. Microbial pesticide avermectin prevents the queen ant from laying eggs so the colony slowly dies out.

Chemical - Boric acid, soap sprays, pyrethrum. Various other sprays and baits are available at your nursery or hardware store. Follow label instructions carefully to avoid injury to your plant, yourself, your pets or the environment. If you are uncertain as to the remedy, it is wise to call a Pest Control Operator; refer to the Yellow Pages in your phone book.

References:

Univ. of Deleware Coop. Ext. Bull. HYG - 12


 

Ant, Crazy (Paratrechina longicornis)

Order: Hymenoptera; Family: Formicidae

Description: Long legs and erratic movement.

Range: Gulf Coast from Florida to Texas. Introduced from India.

Life Cycle: Winged males and females hatch each year and after mating the males die and the fertilized females (queens) each establish their own nest where they start laying large numbers of eggs to form a colony. The eggs mostly hatch into workers that tend the female and care for the young, the female and defend the colony.

Hosts/Damage: Grease, sweets and other insects. Household pest.

Controls:

Cultural - Sticky barriers. Keep debris removed.

Biological - Microbial pesticide avermectin prevents the queen ant from laying eggs so the colony slowly dies out.

Chemical - Boric acid, soap sprays, pyrethrum. Poison kiosks are effective because the workers carry the bait back to the queen who dies and that destroys the colony's capacity to carry on as the workers are killed. Various sprays are available at your nursery or hardware store. Follow label instructions carefully to avoid injury to your plant, yourself, your pets or the environment.


Ant, Fire (Solenopsis sp.)

(Two common species are California or Southern Fire Ant, xyloni and Red Imported Fire Ant, invicta.)Fire Ant

Order: Hymenoptera; Family: Formicidae

Description: Generally red. Waist is pinched, large jaws and elbowed antenna. They move rapidly and are very aggressive. Spray formic acid which causes a strong burning sensation which is often incorrectly described as a sting. Acid is painful and can kill small animals if attack is repeated. Length about 1/4" (6 mm).

Range: Lower 2/3 of U.S.A.

Life Cycle: Winged males and females hatch each year and after mating the males die and the fertilized females (queens) each establish their own nest where they start laying large numbers of eggs to form a colony. The eggs mostly hatch into workers in about 30 day cycles that tend the female and care for the young, the female and defend the colony. Workers live about 6 months and queen lives 2 - 6 years.

Hosts/Damage: Ants nest in mounds about 1 - 2 feet in diameter and may have up to about 250,000 workers in colony. Will eat most animal materials. Prefer desert type conditions.

Controls:

Cultural - Sticky barriers.

Biological - Antlion are natural enemies. Microbial pesticide avermectin prevents the queen ant from laying eggs so the colony slowly dies out.

Chemical - Boric acid, soap sprays, pyrethrum. Various other sprays and baits are available at your nursery or hardware store. Follow label instructions carefully to avoid injury to your plant, yourself, your pets or the environment.


Ant, Moisture

Order: Hymenoptera; Family: Formicidae

Description: Generally black. They are small.

Range: Throughout U.S.A.

Life Cycle: Winged males and females hatch each year and after mating the males die and the fertilized females (queens) each establish their own nest where they start laying large numbers of eggs to form a colony. The eggs mostly hatch into workers that tend the female and care for the young, the female and defend the colony.

Hosts/Damage: Ants are hosted in foodstuffs, dead animals, etc. Moisture ants contaminate foodstuffs in kitchens.

Controls:

Cultural - Sticky barriers. Keep wood dry.

Biological - Antlion are natural enemies. Microbial pesticide avermectin prevents the queen ant from laying eggs so the colony slowly dies out.

Chemical - Boric acid, soap sprays, pyrethrum. Poison kiosks are effective because the workers carry the bait back to the queen who dies and that destroys the colony's capacity to carry on as the workers are killed. Various sprays are available at your nursery or hardware store. Follow label instructions carefully to avoid injury to your plant, yourself, your pets or the environment.


Ant, Pavement (Tetramorium caespitum)

Order: Hymenoptera; Family: Formicidae

Description: Dark brown and about 3/16" (5 mm) long.

Range: Eastern and Midwestern U.S. Introduced from Europe.

Life Cycle: Winged males and females hatch each year and after mating the males die and the fertilized females (queens) each establish their own nest where they start laying large numbers of eggs to form a colony. The eggs mostly hatch into workers that tend the female and care for the young, the female and defend the colony.

Hosts/Damage: Ants are hosted along sidewalks, building foundations and under sticks, stones, boards, mulch, etc. Also common in lawns

Controls:

Cultural - Sticky barriers. Seal up holes and cracks in foundations. Keep area dry but that is only partially effective.

Biological - Microbial pesticide avermectin prevents the queen ant from laying eggs so the colony slowly dies out.

Chemical - Boric acid, soap sprays, pyrethrum. Poison kiosks are effective because the workers carry the bait back to the queen who dies and that destroys the colony's capacity to carry on as the workers are killed. Various sprays are available at your nursery or hardware store. Follow label instructions carefully to avoid injury to your plant, yourself, your pets or the environment.


Ant, Pharoah (Monomorium pharaonis)

Order: Hymenoptera; Family: Formicidae

Description: Yellow with red abdomen with uneven thorax. About 1/16" (2 mm) in length. Their antenna has 12 segments with a three segmented club on the end. They are sometimes confused with the Thief ant which has 10/2 segments. Slow moving.

Range: Throughout U.S.A usually in heated buildings because they are native to tropical Africa and can't survive in cold climates outside.

Life Cycle: Winged males and females hatch each year and after mating the males die and the fertilized females (queens) each establish their own nest where they start laying large numbers of eggs to form a colony. The eggs mostly hatch into workers that tend the female and care for the young, the female and defend the colony.

Hosts/Damage: Ants are hosted in dark voids in buildings or in folded paper or bags in colder areas of the U.S. or in various litter in milder areas. They look for food and water sources around human habitats.

Controls:

Cultural - Sticky barriers. Keep debris, water and foodstuffs cleaned up.

Biological - Microbial pesticide avermectin prevents the queen ant from laying eggs so the colony slowly dies out.

Chemical - Boric acid. Poison kiosks are effective because the workers carry the bait back to the queen who dies and that destroys the colony's capacity to carry on as the workers are killed. Contact poisons are avoided by the ants and tend to agravate the problem. Various sprays are available at your nursery or hardware store. Follow label instructions carefully to avoid injury to your plant, yourself, your pets or the environment.

 


Aphid

Aphid

Order: Homoptera; Family: Aphididae

Description:

Adults up to 3/8" (10 mm), pear shaped with soft bodies, two tube-like structures sticking out from their rear end, long antenna, have wings usually in July - August, very slow moving and tend to cluster in large groups, colors are usually pale amber, green or orange but can be almost any color, there are about 1350 species (1). Nymphs, similar to adults but smaller and wingless.

Range: Throughout U.S.A.

Life Cycle:

Prolific reproduction capability ensures their survival in many cases. They reproduce by mating and also have a capability to reproduce without a mate. Most young are produced live without an egg stage during the early part of the year but move into egg laying stage after a winged form of male and female types are created in the mid-Summer period.

Host/Damage:

They suck the sap out of a host plant and sometimes infect it with viruses. The aphid does not completely digest the sap so a honeydew is exuded which usually results in black mold which also is harmful to the host. The honeydew attracts ants so they oftentimes tend the aphids like cattle to obtain the honeydew. Most plants that go through a tender stage are susceptible to aphid attack.

Controls:

Cultural -

Control ants. Hand pick or wash off aphids with a water spray. Remove parts of plant with large quantity of aphids and destroy. Sticky traps.

Biological -

Use aphid midges, green lacewings or ladybird beetles. Recently, a ladybug lure (2) has been made available which could be useful in attracting them from the wild or holding introduced ones until they control the aphids.

Chemical -

Soap or oil sprays. Pyrethrum or neem. Various other sprays and powders are available at your nursery or hardware store. Follow label instructions carefully to avoid injury to your plant, yourself, your pets or the environment.

1. Territorial Seed Co., P.O. Box 157, Cottage Grove, OR 97424;  ph 541-942-9547.
2. Some other common species are: Alder (Euceraphis gillettei and Oestlundiella flava), Alfalfa (Macrosiphum creelii), American Maple (Periphyllus americanus), American Walnut (Monelliopsis caryae), Apple (Aphis pomi), Asparagus (Brachycolus asparagi), Bow-legged Fir (Cinara curvipes), Giant Willow (Lachnus salignis), Lettuce Root (Pemphigus populitransvers) and Woolly Apple (Erisoma lanigerum).

Aphid, Asparagus (Brachycolus asparagi)

Asparagus Aphid

Order: Homoptera; Family: Aphididae

Description:

Adults, small, pear shaped with soft bodies, two very short tube-like structures sticking out from their rear end, very slow moving and tend to cluster in large groups, colors of winged and wingless aphids are usually powdery grey to green and are about 1/32" (1 mm) long. Eggs, initially shiny green when first laid but turn black within a few hours.

Range:

Prefer areas of low rainfall and humidity. It is native to Europe but was first reported in the U.S. in 1969 in New York and has since spread to many areas.

Life Cycle:

The aphid passes the winter in the egg stage which are laid around November by the females. The eggs are laid singly on host stems under bracts at the base of the plant. Eggs hatch in the Spring and the first nymphs feed on the host spears as they emerge from the ground. The aphid has four nymph stages through the Summer and the females have live births. Winged or wingless forms are produced throughout the Summer with the first winged forms appearing in May. There are many generations each year. The winged male aphids appear in the Fall which fertilize the females to begin a new annual cycle.

Host/Damage:

They appear to be found only on asparagus. They suck the sap out of a host plant especially at the terminal fern growth in the axils where the needles join the stem. The aphid does not completely digest the sap so a honeydew is exuded. The leaves and stems acquire a tufted appearance. Heavily infested seedlings may form rosettes, shrivel and die. Plants less than 3 years old are often killed. Older plants may survive but with considerable damage or dwarfing.

Controls:

Cultural -

Hand pick or wash off aphids with a water spray. Remove parts of plant with large quantity of aphids and destroy. Sticky traps. Remove early season ferns and spears from host.

Biological - Use aphid midges, green lacewings or ladybugs.

Chemical -

Soap or oil sprays. Pyrethrum or neem. Various other sprays and powders are available at your nursery or hardware store. Follow label instructions carefully to avoid injury to your plant, yourself, your pets or the environment.


Last edited: 11/23/98 08:58 PM

 

Disclaimer:

The help provided by the author of this site is the best scientific based information, about which he is aware, but gardening is not an exact science due to the many unpredictable elements involved so the results can not be guaranteed. E-mail feedback is therefor invited to keep the author aware of successes and failures. Also let me know if you are the author of anything that appears to be illegally incorporated in violation of your copyrights.